This publication serves as a guide and a reference for trained members of the Armed Forces Medical Services and other medically qualified personnel on the recognition and treatment of biological warfare agent casualties. Information contained in this publication may also be relevant for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with naturally acquired diseases or illnesses due to pathogens with BW potential. This publication: (1) Classifies and describes potential BW agents. (2) Provides procedures for collecting, handling and labeling, shipping, and identifying potential BW agents. (3) Describes procedures for medical diagnosing, treating, and management of BW casualties. (4) Describes medical management and treatment in BW operations. The treatment modalities contained in this manual differ from standard textbooks in that they apply to BW agent exposures. The method of exposure for most BW agents is by inhalation; whereas, the endemic disease exposure (if applicable) is by other means. Some are by ingestion, some by arthropod bites, and others by dermal contact with the agent. This does not preclude service members becoming BW casualties by these means.